Bitmob editorializes on the politics of Fallout.There might not be Democrats or Republicans, but the Fallout universe still has a diverse political landscape -- even discounting blood-thirsty raiders and Jet addicts. Given that survival is rough in the wasteland, the residents of the former United States usually live under martial law despite whatever faction they might look to for protection. Without a standardized law or economy to stabilize society, shows of force are the only way to keep the peace. The methods and belief systems of these factions, however, still vary greatly.Thanks GameBanshee.
The Brotherhood of Steel, with their signature power armor and energy weapons, is probably the most recognizable faction. The Brotherhood seems to be the most pragmatic of all the parties that player characters encounter. Their primary motivation is not the mere restoration of society; they stamp out all forms of chaos and disorder, such as rival factions or super mutants. However, their willingness to collect and restore old technology suggests that a return to the status quo might be just underneath the surface.
The New California Republic is similar to the BoS. They patrol the Mojave Wasteland and try to protect their citizens from raiders and slavers alike. Though they may be overzealous in their territorial desires, their motivations are not entirely ignoble.
The Enclave, seen most recently in Fallout 3, is perhaps the most relatable faction in the series. Much like contemporary politicians, they rely on fear mongering and willful ignorance to stay in power and often don’t appear to have the best interests of their constituents in mind. The Enclave, if you trust its radio broadcasts, believes that a return to America’s former glory is just right around the corner. According to them, we just need to purify the human race by killing all of the super mutants and “infected” citizens of the wasteland.